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Surya (Sanskrit: सू, «Sun») is the main Vedic name for the Sun, which means the energiser, inspirer, enlivener and transformer. Surya is the deity (devata) for the Sun. It is he who sets all things in motion as the guiding force behind the universe, the executive cosmic intelligence and power. Surya is the great god who directs the cosmic movement, the solar logos or indwelling cosmic being. He represents the cosmic will in life towards growth, evolution and the development of consciousness.

The Sun has many names in Vedic thought including Savitar (inspirer), Aditya (primal intelligence) and Bhaskara (maker of light). Many different forms of the Sun Gods or Adityas (like Mitra, Varuna, Aryaman and Bhaga) rule over different Nakshatras, months, seasons, times of the day, and other time cycles. For example, Mitra is said to be the name of the rising Sun, Indra for the Sun at noon, and Varuna for the Sun at setting. Generally Surya is more the deity of the solar disc, while Savitar is more the being or consciousness, the Purusha in the Sun.

See also