(BDI; Beck et al. 1961) Manic symptoms have been assessed together with the YMRS

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No time PD325901 web restrictions were imposed, but participants were informed that they have been getting timed. A maximum of 36 points could possibly be accomplished. The variables of interest have been the total score and the time taken to finish the job measured in minutes.Neuropsychological measuresAll tests and interviews had been performed by trained postgraduate psychology or healthcare students.Statistical analysesThe neuropsychological assessment comprised 17 tests measuring selected facets of interest, memory, executive functions, and common cognitive potential.(BDI; Beck et al. 1961) Manic symptoms were assessed with the YMRS as well as the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM; Altman et al. 1997). Also, duration of illness and quantity of preceding depressive and (hypo)manic episodes were recorded as demographics. Controls were administered the MINI, the BDI, as well as the Short Symptom Inventory (BSI; Franke 2000).Theory of thoughts tasksVisual cognitive ToM was assessed with the Mental State Attribution Job (MSAT) developed by Br e (2003). This task consists of six ToM cartoon stories, each and every comprising 4 picture cards. For each story, the 4 cards have been placed face down in front of your participants in random order. The participants were then requested to turn them more than and organize the cards into a logical sequence. The time taken for sequencing was noted. When the cards have been sequenced incorrectly, the experimenter placed them within the ideal order. Subsequent, the participants have been asked inquiries about the mental states of your characters within the cartoon. To answer the inquiries properly, the participants had to understand characters' first-order, secondorder, or third-order true or false beliefs, reciprocity, deception and cheating intentions. Two inquiries were "reality" questions that didn't require inferences about mental states but rather merely the detection of details from the story that were visually comprehendible. Two with the image stories as well as the system of rating were adapted from Langdon et al. (1997). The right sequencing of your 1st and final cards title= j.adolescence.2013.10.012 was given two points, while title= 2152-7806.162550 the appropriate sequencing from the second and third card was awarded one point. Each and every correctly answered query was awarded a single point. A total score comprising theHaag et al. Int J Bipolar Disord (2016) four:Web page four ofsequencing-accuracy score and the properly answered queries was computed (using a maximum of 59 points). Two practice samples depicting "reality" (i.e., non-ToM) stories taken from Langdon et al. title= rsta.2014.0282 (1997) have been administered ahead of the primary activity. The variables of interest were the total score as well as the total time taken for the sequencing with the six cartoons (measured in seconds). Visual affective ToM was measured with all the Reading the Thoughts in the Eyes Test (RMET; German version by B te (2005)). The RMET consists of a series of 36 sheets with a pair of eyes printed in the middle of every sheet. Every pair of eyes is presented with four words that describe feelings or affectively valenced states of mind (e.g., "anxious" or "confused"). From an answer sheet, the participants have been instructed to pick out the word that most effective described what the person in the picture was feeling, thinking or attempting to express.